Associate Professor Alexandra George

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD): Australian National University

Master of Jurisprudence, Honours: M.Jur. (Hons): University of Sydney

Master of Laws, Honours: LL.M. (Hons): University of Sydney

Bachelor of Laws, Honours: LL.B. (Hons): University of Sydney

Bachelor of Arts, Honours: B.A. (Hons): University of Sydney

Graduate Diploma of Legal Practice (GDLP): College of Law, Sydney

Post-Graduate Certificate in Academic Practice (PGCAP): University of London

Also:

Fellow of the Higher Education Academy (FHEA), UK

BA(Hons), LLB(Hons), LLM(Hons), MJur(Hons) (Sydney); GDLP (College of Law); PGCAP (London); PhD (ANU); FHEA

Dr Alexandra George joined the UNSW Law Faculty in 2007, having had earlier academic appointments at Queen Mary, University of London, the University of Wales, Swansea and the University of Exeter in the UK. She has also worked at the European University Institute, Florence, Italy and at the University of Sydney, has practised as an intellectual property and media lawyer, was Associate to Justice MF Moore in the Federal Court of Australia and the Industrial Relations Court of Australia, and worked in journalism at Reuters.

Alexandra’s research focuses on international intellectual property and the philosophy of intellectual property law. Recent publications examine issues of jurisdiction and enforcement in international intellectual property law, including intellectual property implications of Brexit. Her philosophical research examines issues such as the metaphysics and structure of intellectual property law, and ‘property’ concepts in the commodification of intangible objects.

Her book Constructing Intellectual Property (Cambridge University Press, 2012) examines the ways in which the legal system defines into existence and regulates intellectual property. By analyzing the metaphysical structure of intellectual property law and the concepts the legal system uses to construct 'intellectual property', the book helps to explain the role of intellectual property from a structural -- rather than the traditional normative -- perspective.

In 2016, Alexandra was named 'Academic of the Year' at the Australian Lawyers Weekly Women in Law Awards. She has also has received a Vice-Chancellor’s Award for Teaching Excellence at UNSW (2013), and a Pro Bono Award for her work for The Arts Law Centre of Australia (2016).

Profile Picture
Book Chapters

George A, 2012, '“Owning Life"', in Chatterjee D (ed.), Encyclopedia of Global Justice, Springer Science & Business Media, pp. 791 - 791

George A, 2011, 'Organ Trafficking', in Chatterjee D (ed.), Encyclopedia of Global Justice, Springer, New York, pp. 783 - 784

George A, 2011, 'Human Genome', in Chatterjee D (ed.), Encyclopedia of Global Justice, Springer, New York, pp. 490 - 494

George A, 2011, 'Bio-Prospecting and Biopiracy', in Chatterjee D (ed.), Encyclopedia of Global Justice, Springer, New York, pp. 77 - 80

George A, 2011, 'Access to Essential Medicines', in Chatterjee D (ed.), Encyclopedia of Global Justice, Springer, New York, pp. 312 - 318

George A, 2010, 'What is 'Intellectual Property'? Standard Definitional Methods and their Flaws', in Gizbert Studnicki T (ed.), LAW LIBERTY MORALITY AND RIGHTS, edn. 1st, WOLTERS KLUWER, Amsterdam, Netherlands, pp. 164 - 175

George A, 2009, 'Trade Marks', in Southerton D (ed.), Encyclopedia of Consumer Culture, edn. 1st, Routledge, London, UK, pp. 1473 - 1477

George A, 2007, 'Intellectual property and the internet', in Encyclopedia of Internet Technologies and Applications, pp. 222 - 227, http://dx.doi.org/10.4018/978-1-59140-993-9.ch032

George A, 2006, 'How to Globalize the World: The Jurisprudence of International Intellectual Propertization', in George A (ed.), Globalization and Intellectual Property, edn. Original, Ashgate, Surrey, UK, pp. xi - xl

George A, 2005, 'Propertizing the Immaterial: The Commodification of Valuable Intangibles', in Material Worlds, Cambridge Scholars Pub, Glasgow University

Books

George A, 2012, Constructing Intellectual Property, 1, Cambridge University Press, US

Conference Presentations

George A, 2019, 'China’s FinTech Disruption: Intellectual Property’s Role in the Revolution', presented at Works-in-Progress Intellectual Property Colloquium (WIPIP), University of Houston Law Center, Houston, USA, 08 - 09 February 2019

George A, 2019, 'Transported for Stealing Copyright? Extradition as a Tool for the Cross-Border Enforcement of Intellectual Property Laws', presented at Institute for Intellectual Property & Information Law (‘IPIL’) seminar, University of Houston Law Center, Houston, 06 - 06 February 2019

George A, 2018, 'Extradition and Overseas Prison Time: A Developing Trend in the Cross-Border Enforcement of Intellectual Property Laws?', presented at International Law Association conference, Sydney, Australia, 19 - 24 August 2018

George A, 2018, 'The Future of Globalisation of Intellectual Property Jurisdiction/Enforcement', presented at UNSW Workshop on Private International Law and Intellectual Property, Sydney, Australia, 18 - 18 August 2018

George A, 2018, 'Brexit & Intellectual Property Law: Implications for Australia', presented at Symposium - The Australia-European Union Free Trade Agreement and Brexit, QUT, Brisbane, Australia, 26 - 26 July 2018

George A, 2018, 'Uncle Sam Wants You! Extradition to the US in Copyright Cases', presented at Law and Society Association, 2018 Annual Meeting, Toronto, Canada, 07 - 10 June 2018

George A, 2018, 'Catching Pirates: Copyright, Extradition & Human Rights', presented at HKU-UNSW Symposium, Hong Kong University, Hong Kong, 02 - 02 March 2018

George A, 2018, 'Intellectual Property Laws in an AI Future: A Metaphysical Approach', presented at Bracing for Impact: The Artificial Intelligence Challenge, Osgoode Hall, Toronto, Canada, 02 - 02 February 2018

George A, 2017, 'Sci-Tech Disruption and Intellectual Property: A Metaphysical Approach to the Future of Intellectual Property Laws', presented at 1st Future of Law Conference —The Internet of Things, Smart Contracts and Intelligent Machines, Singapore Management University, Singapore, 26 - 27 October 2017

George A, 2017, 'The (Im)Possibility of Reconciling Indigenous and Western ‘Intellectual Property’ Laws', presented at Copyright Symposium 2017, Sydney, Australia, 12 - 13 October 2017

George A, 2017, 'Transcending Territoriality: International Intellectual Property Enforcement & Dispute Resolution in the Fourth Industrial Revolution', presented at Tsinghua-UNSW Workshop, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, 27 - 27 September 2017

George A, 2017, 'Transcending Geography: Trends Towards the Globalization of Intellectual Property Enforcement', presented at European Policy for Intellectual Property (EPIP), Bordeaux, France, 04 - 06 September 2017

George A, 2017, 'Embedding Emerging Practice Technologies in Law Teaching', presented at The Future of Australian Legal Education Conference, Sydney, Australia, 11 - 13 August 2017

George A, 2017, 'Materializing the Immaterial: Intellectual Property Law as a Mechanism for Commodification', presented at Law and Society Association, 2017 Annual Meeting, Mexico City, Mexico, 20 - 23 June 2017

George A, 2016, 'Designing Laws to Protect Indigenous Knowledge: Lessons from Metaphysics', presented at Indigenous Knowledge Roundtable, University of Technology Sydney, Australia, 14 - 14 December 2016

George A, 2016, 'Mind Downloads & Intellectual Property Futurism', presented at Law and Society Association, 2016 Annual Meeting, New Orleans, USA, 02 - 05 June 2016

George A, 2016, 'Alternative Dispute Resolution in Intellectual Property Disputes: A Solution to Jurisdictional Challenges?', presented at Thirteenth Annual Works-in-Progress Intellectual Property Colloquium (WIPIP), University of Washington School of Law, Seattle, USA, 19 - 20 February 2016

George A, 2016, 'Intellectual Property in a Globalized World: Overcoming Jurisdictional Impediments to Cross-Border Enforcement', presented at 4th Asia Pacific Intellectual Property Forum (‘Comparative Transnational IP Law in Practice’), University of Washington School of Law, Seattle, USA, 18 - 18 February 2016

George A, 2015, 'Testing Boundaries? Protecting Intellectual Property Interests Across National Borders', presented at UNSW-HKU Law Symposium, Sydney, Australia, 04 - 05 December 2015

George A, 2015, 'Human Rights & the Cross-Border Enforcement of Intellectual Property Laws', presented at Colloquium on Social Responsibility of IP Rights Holders, University of Pretoria, South Africa, 02 - 02 October 2015

George A, 2015, 'Intellectual Property Law as a Knowledge System: Law Reform Lessons from Indigenous Societies', presented at ATRIP Congress 2015: “Intellectual Property in Action in Society: New Perspectives from the North, the South and the Cloud”, Cape Town, South Africa, 27 - 30 September 2015

George A, 2015, 'Globalising Jurisdiction: New Developments in Cross-Territorial Protection of Intellectual Property', presented at 7th Annual Conference on Innovation and Communications Law, Xiamen University, China, 06 - 07 July 2015

George A, 2015, 'Indigenous Knowledge and Social Systems: A Case Study of Customary ‘Copyright’ in the South Pacific', presented at Law and Society Association, 2015 Annual Meeting, Seattle, USA, 27 - 31 May 2015

George A, 2015, 'Spiritual Property: Indigenous Knowledge Systems in an Intellectual Property Environment', presented at WIPIP 2015, USPTO, Alexandria, VA, USA, 06 - 07 February 2015

George A, 2014, 'Copyright’s Conundrum: The Problem of How to Protect National Rights in a Globalised World', presented at Trans-Pacific Intellectual Property Roundtable, UNSW, Sydney Australia, 21 - 21 November 2014

George A, 2014, 'The Law of Authenticity: Fashion, Fakes and Fame', presented at Charting the New Frontiers of Intellectual Property Protection of Fashion Brands and Designs, Hong Kong, 10 - 10 May 2014

George A, 2014, 'How Long is Uncle Sam's Arm? Extraterritorial Enforcement of Domestic Intellectual Property Laws', presented at WIPIP 2014, San Jose, USA, 07 - 09 February 2014

George A, 2013, 'Australia's Gene Patenting Environment (discussing J.Liddicoat,"New perspectives on Genetic Sequence Patents")', presented at European Policy for Intellectual Property ('EPIP'), 2013 Annual Conference, Paris, France, 05 - 06 September 2013

George A, 2013, 'Intellectual Property as Religion', presented at Law and Society Association, 2013 Annual Meeting, Boston, USA, 30 May - 02 June 2013

George A, 2012, '‘Literary’ Authorship, Commerce, & Cultural Innovation', presented at Creativity and Authorship: Law and Changing Practices Symposium, Canberra, Australia, 17 - 18 December 2012

George A, 2012, 'Global Intellectual Property Regulation: A Changing Trajectory?', presented at 2nd HKU-UNSW Research Symposium, Hong Kong, 06 - 07 December 2012

George A, 2012, 'Pester Power and Intellectual Property Reform', presented at UNSW Law Society and Gilbert + Tobin Intellectual Property Seminar, Sydney, Australia, 29 - 29 May 2012

George A, 2011, 'The Metaphysics of Intellectual Property & the Challenges of Scientific Progress', presented at World Congress of the International Association for Philosophy of Law and Social Philosophy (IVR), Frankfurt, Germany, 14 - 20 August 2011

George A, 2011, 'When is Intellectual Property Not ‘Intellectual Property’?', presented at Law and Society Association, 2011 Annual Meeting, San Francisco, California, USA, 02 - 05 June 2011

George A, 2008, 'Resisting Counterfeiting: Cultural Dimensions of Intellectual Property Enforcement', presented at Law and Society Association, 2008 Annual Meeting, Montreal, Canada, 29 May - 01 June 2008

George A, 2008, 'Comparative Perspectives on Intellectual Property Law and Theory', presented at ANJEL (The Australian Network for Japanese Law) international conference: Beyond 'Country and Western' Law: Towards New Australia-Japan Partnerships in Legal Research, Ritsumeikan Law School, Kyoto, Japan, 16 - 16 February 2008

George A, 2007, 'Legal Imperialism? The Application of Western Intellectual Property Laws to Ideas, Information and Knowledge in Non-Commercial Settings, Seminar Series', presented at Faculty of Law, University of the South Pacific, Port Vila, Vanuatu, Faculty of Law, University of the South Pacific, Port Vila, Vanuatu, 03 - 03 September 2007

George A, 2007, 'Whose Property? ‘Intellectual Property’ as a Contested Concept', presented at World Congress of the International Association for Philosophy of Law and Social Philosophy (IVR), Krakow, Poland, 06 - 06 August 2007

George A, 2006, 'Branding Trademarks', presented at Seminar to the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, London, UK, 14 - 14 December 2006

George A, 2006, 'Branding Law / Trademarking Culture', presented at Law and Society Association, 2006 Annual Meeting, Baltimore, Maryland, USA, 06 - 09 July 2006

George A, 2006, 'Intangible Property; Tangible Justice?', presented at Social Justice in Practice, Association for Legal and Social Philosophy 2006 Conference, Dublin, Ireland, 28 June - 01 July 2006

George A, 2005, 'Propertising the Immaterial: The Commodification of Valuable (In)tangibles', presented at Material Worlds Conference, University of Glasgow, 30 - 30 October 2005

George A, 2005, 'Trademark Law-Branding Lore: The Jurisprudence of a Branding Culture', presented at Trade Marks and Branding: An Interdisciplinary Colloquium, Queen Mary, University of London, UK, 16 - 16 September 2005

George A, 2005, 'Brand New World: The (In)Justice of Global Intellectual Propertisation', presented at World Congress of the International Association for Philosophy of Law and Social Philosophy (IVR), Granada, Spain, 25 - 25 May 2005

George A, 2005, 'Symbolic Symbiosis: The Branding-Trademark Nexus', presented at Brands: A Workshop, Goldsmiths College, University of London, UK, 08 - 08 April 2005

George A, 2004, 'Commercial Liberalism and Law-Making: Regulating Intellectual Properties', presented at UK Legal Theory Group Inaugural Conference, University of Edinburgh, UK, 16 - 16 April 2004

George A, 2004, ''Intellectual 'Property’?', presented at First Annual Intellectual Property & Communications Law and Policy Scholars Roundtable, Michigan State University-DCL College of Law, USA, 20 - 21 February 2004

George A, 2003, 'Intellectual Property and Commercial Liberalism', presented at RegNet Seminar, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia, 25 - 25 November 2003

George A, 2003, 'Counterfeiting in Context, Makers, Takers and Fakers: A Sideways Look at IP Enforcement', presented at Anti-Counterfeiting Group Autumn Conference, UK, 17 - 17 October 2003

George A, 2003, 'The Criminalisation of Intellectual Property Infringement: Shifting Conceptions from Civil Infringement to Criminal Counterfeiting', presented at 3rd Annual Conference of the European Society of Criminology: Crime and Crime Control in an Integrating Europe, Helsinki, Finland, 01 - 01 August 2003

George A, 2003, 'Intellectual Property in the Post-Colonial World', presented at World Congress of the International Association for Philosophy of Law and Social Philosophy (IVR), Lund, Sweden, 01 - 01 August 2003

George A, 2003, 'Legal Developments in the Enforcement of Trade Mark Rights, Anti-Counterfeiting and Enforcement Practices Conference', presented at Office for Harmonisation in the Internal Market (OHIM), Alicante, Spain, 02 - 02 April 2003

George A, 2003, 'Global Cooling: Copyright and the Regulation of Communication', presented at RegNet Seminar, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia, 08 - 08 January 2003

George A, 2002, 'Unregistered Marks in the EU and the World', presented at Seminar at the Office for Harmonisation in the Internal Market (OHIM), Alicante, Spain, 27 - 27 November 2002

George A, 2001, 'Legal Control of the Human Body: How and Why?', presented at Law and Society Annual Conference, Budapest, Hungary, 01 - 01 July 2001

George A, 2001, 'Property in the Human Body and its Parts: Reflections on Self-Determination in Liberal Society', presented at World Congress of the International Association for Philosophy of Law and Social Philosophy, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 01 - 01 June 2001

Edited Books

George A, (ed.), 2006, Globalization and Intellectual Property, Original, Ashgate, Surrey, UK

Journal articles

George A, 2018, 'TRANSCENDING TERRITORIALITY: INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AND HARMONIZATION IN INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY ENFORCEMENT & DISPUTE RESOLUTION', TSINGHUA CHINA LAW REVIEW, vol. 10, pp. 225 - 273, http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000437524900004&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=891bb5ab6ba270e68a

George A, 2018, 'Restructuring Intellectual Property Jurisdiction Post-Brexit: Strategic Considerations for the European Union and Britain', Brooklyn Journal of International Law, vol. 43, pp. 131 - 189, https://brooklynworks.brooklaw.edu/bjil/vol43/iss1/27

George A, 2017, 'Just Keep Calm & Carry On: The Impact of Brexit on Intellectual Property Laws in Britain and the European Union', Journal of Intellectual Property Studies, vol. 1, pp. 90 - 130, https://journalofipstudies.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/brexit-ip.pdf

George A, 2015, 'The Metaphysics of Intellectual Property', The WIPO Journal: analysis and debate of global intellectual property issues, vol. 7, pp. 16 - 28, http://www.wipo.int/edocs/pubdocs/en/wipo_journal_wpj7n1.pdf

George A, 2014, 'Reforming Australia's Copyright Law: An opportunity to Address the Issues of Authorship and Originality', University of New South Wales Law Journal, vol. 37, pp. 939 - 971, http://search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn=778737583934157;res=IELHSS

George A, 2014, 'Legal Protection of Brands in a World of Social Media', Inhouse Counsel, vol. 18, pp. 109 - 114

George A, 2009, 'Intellectual Property in the South Pacific', Socio-Legal Newsletter, vol. 58, pp. 8 - 9

George A, 2007, 'The (In)Justice of Globalisation by Intellectual Propertisation', Archiv fur Rechts- und Sozialphilosophie, vol. 109, pp. 17 - 31

George A, 2006, 'Marketing Humanity: Should We Allow the Sale of Human Body Parts?', UTS Law Review, vol. 7

George A, 2006, 'Brand Rules: When Branding Lore Meets Trademark Law', Journal of Brand Management, vol. 13, pp. 215 - 232, http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.bm.2540265

George A, 2006, 'Branding and Trademarks', Journal of Brand Management, vol. 13

George A, 2005, 'The difficulty of defining 'property'', Oxford Journal of Legal Studies, vol. 25, pp. 793 - 813, http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ojls/gqi037

George A, 2004, 'Is 'Property' Necessary? On Owning the Human Body and its Parts', Res Publica, pp. 15 - 42

George A, 2003, 'E-shopping for Fakes: The Internet Business in Trademark Counterfeits', World Internet Law Report, vol. 12, pp. 7 - 11

George A, 2003, 'The Problem of Property in Human Body Parts', Archiv fur Rechts- und Sozialphilosophie, vol. 88, pp. 168 - 176

George A, 1998, 'Australian Franchising Code: New Obligations for Trade Mark Licensing Agreements', World Licensing Law Report, pp. 3 - 5

George A, 1996, 'Sterilisation and Intellectually Disabled Children', The Sydney Law Review, vol. 18, pp. 218 - 233, http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/journals/SydLawRw/1996/10.html

Other

George A, 2018, The Future of Cross-Border Enforcement of Intellectual Property Laws, Special Lecture, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan

George A, 2015, All in the Mind? The Metaphysics of Intellectual Property Law, Faculty Seminar, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand

George A, 2013, Intellectual Property Roundtable guest speaker, National Law University, Jodhpur, India

Reports

Wang M; Bennett Moses L; George A, 2018, Submission to Copyright Modernization Consultation, https://www.communications.gov.au/sites/default/files/submissions/allens_hub_for_technology_law_and_innovation_unsw.pdf

George A, 2018, Submission concerning Digital Assets upon Death or Incapacity to the Law Reform Commission NSW, https://www.lawreform.justice.nsw.gov.au/Documents/Current-projects/Digital%20assets/Preliminary%20submissions/PDI15.pdf

Working Papers

George A; Machado P; Ziller J, 2001, Law and Public Management: Starting to Talk – Part I, European University Institute, 12, http://dx.doi.orghttp://cadmus.eui.eu/bitstream/handle/1814/176/law01-12.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

George A; Machado P; Ziller J, 2001, Law and Public Management: Starting to Talk – Part II / Droit et gestion publique: la gestion des reseaux – IIe partie, European University Institute, 13, http://dx.doi.orghttp://cadmus.eui.eu/bitstream/handle/1814/177/law01-13.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

George A, 2001, Property in the Human Body and its Parts: Reflections on Self-Determination in Liberal Society, European University Institute, 8, http://dx.doi.orghttp://0.0.0.8/

UNSW Vice-Chancellor’s Award for Teaching Excellence, 2013

'Academic of the Year', Australian Lawyers Weekly Women in Law Awards, 2016

Pro Bono Award, The Arts Law Centre of Australia, 2016

Intellectual property law (esp. copyright and trademarks)

International Intellectual Property law

Intellectual property philosophy and theory

Currently Teaching

Foundations of Intellectual Property Law (LAWS3021) (JURD7321)

Advanced Intellectual Property Policy and Practice (LAWS3057) (JURD7357)

Intellectual Property Law (LAWS8017) (JURD7617)

Globalisation and Intellectual Property Law (LAWS8050) (JURD7350)

Owning Creativity: Issues in Intellectual Property (GENL2323) (BA Legal Studies Only LAWS3523)

China International Business and Economic Law Summer School, at Tsinghua University, Beijing (LAWS3345) (JURD7645) (LAWS8345)